We found that the overall prevalence of low vitamin D ( 7%, with significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males (85.5% vs. 64.7%; p males) was significant (p Percentages of the study population having (A) Low Vitamin D ( The overall prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency ( The overall prevalence of folic acid deficiency ( Conversation Our study aimed at determining the burden of vitamin D, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies in an aging (?45 years), rural community from the state of Karnataka in southern India. Our results revealed that the overall prevalence of low vitamin D ( The definition of adequate levels of vitamin D has undergone much debate in the recent past, with recommendations varying between different expert advisory bodies. For example, the US National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine) (19) recommends levels of 20 ng/ml and above as adequate, whereas the US Endocrine Society (20) and International Osteoporosis Foundation (21) recommendations classify levels of 20–29 ng/ml as “insufficient” and Figure 2 Seemingly faster knowledge on nutritional D deficiency was indeed achieved inside the warm countries compared to moderate nations (22). Moreover, about record away from scarce information on vitamin D status away from Indians when you look at the outlying groups, our discovering that over about three-fourths for the rural Indian populace had lower vitamin D try most regarding. This also happens from the old-fashioned evaluate that people of tropical places, and this discover sunshine throughout every season, will likely features enough levels of nutritional D. You can easily reasons for having new eg higher incidence within this cohort is old society having limited backyard passion, expanding adaptation and you will use of hosts to have farming really works (thus, decreasing manual labor in the wild industries) and you will worst dietary source of vitamin D, because most people have zero or limited intake away from meats situations and you may milk products is not evenly strengthened across the country.

We found that the overall prevalence of low vitamin D (<30 ng/ml) in our rural cohort was 75

7%, with significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males (85.5% vs. 64.7%; p < 0.001). On age stratification (45–54 years, 55–64 years, 65–74 years and ?75 years), this gender difference (females > males) was significant (p < 0.001) across all the above-mentioned age groups. Females in the age group of 75 years and above had the highest prevalence (94.3%) of low vitamin D. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) in our rural cohort was 39.1%, with significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males (47.8% vs. 29.2%; p < 0.001). The same trend was observed with statistical significance across all age groups: 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, and ?75 years. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (59.6%) was seen in females in the age group of 75 years and above (Shape dos).

Percentages of the study population having (A) Low Vitamin D (<30 ng/ml) and Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) (B) Vitamin B12 deficiency and (C) Folic acid deficiency is graphically represented.

The overall prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml) in our rural subjects was 42.3%. There was no significant difference in prevalence between males and females (41.8% vs. 42.7%). However, among females, significantly higher prevalence was observed in the age group of 45–54 years (p = 0.014) There was no significant difference between age groups among males (Figure 2).

The overall prevalence of folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml) in our rural cohort was 11.1% There was significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in males (13.9%) compared to females (8.6%). Among the different age groups, we found that subjects aged 75 years and above had the highest prevalence (19.9%, p < 0.001). In this oldest age group, females had a slightly higher prevalence compared to males (21.8% vs. 18.5%), though this difference was not statistically significant (Figure 2).

Conversation

Our study aimed at determining the burden of vitamin D, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies in an aging (?45 years), rural community from the state of Karnataka in southern India. Our results revealed that the overall prevalence of low vitamin D (<30 ng/ml), vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml), vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml) and folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml) were 75.7%, 39.1%, 42.3%, and 11.1%, respectively. These results imply that this rural community had an overall higher burden of inadequate vitamins D and B12, with relatively low burden of folic acid deficiency.

The definition of adequate levels of vitamin D has undergone much debate in the recent past, with recommendations varying between different expert advisory bodies. For example, the US National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine) (19) recommends levels of 20 ng/ml and above as adequate, whereas the US Endocrine Society (20) and International Osteoporosis Foundation (21) recommendations classify levels of 20–29 ng/ml as “insufficient” and <20 ng/ml as “deficient.” In our study, we used two cut-off levels to categorize abnormal levels: <30 ng/ml was categorized as low vitamin D (to include both insufficiency and deficiency) and <20 ng/ml was categorized as vitamin D deficiency.

Figure 2

Seemingly faster knowledge on nutritional D deficiency was indeed achieved inside the warm countries compared to moderate nations (22). Moreover, about record away from scarce information on vitamin D status away from Indians when you look at the outlying groups, our discovering that over about three-fourths for the rural Indian populace had lower vitamin D try most regarding. This also happens from the old-fashioned evaluate that people of tropical places, and this discover sunshine throughout every season, will likely features enough levels of nutritional D. You can easily reasons for having new eg higher incidence within this cohort is old society having limited backyard passion, wyszukiwanie chatib expanding adaptation and you will use of hosts to have farming really works (thus, decreasing manual labor in the wild industries) and you will worst dietary source of vitamin D, because most people have zero or limited intake away from meats situations and you may milk products is not evenly strengthened across the country.

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